Thursday, May 25, 2017

Building a 68000 Single Board Computer - C Compiling Example

I earlier did some experimenting with using gcc to cross-compile C code for the embedded TS2 board. I recently spent a few hours making a longer example, and hooking it up to some of the TUTOR ROM routines.

I earlier built the GNU assembler, and while I was at it I also built the gcc compiler.

In this "bare metal" setup, there is no C run-time library so you can't call routines like printf() to do output. You can't even write code that might require external routines to do things that the 68000 can't do directly, like multiplying 32-bit integers.

My example code can be found here and includes a make file.

The basic steps are to first compile for the 68000 and no standard library. I used this command line:

m68k-elf-gcc -Wall -nostdlib -nodefaultlibs -m68000 -c demo.c

This produces an object file, demo.o. Next, you can link it. I used linker options to specify the addresses for the different sections that would work on my TS2 board. I also found I had to define the symbol _start to point to main to avoid a warning. This was the command line I used:

m68k-elf-ld --defsym=_start=main -Ttext=0x2000 -Tdata=0x3000 -Tbss=0x4000 --section-start=.rodata=0x5000 demo.o

This produces an ELF format excecutable called a.out. You can then generate an S record or Motorola hex file for downloading using a command like this:

m68k-elf-objcopy -I coff-m68k -O srec a.out demo.run

If you wanted to see the assembler output of the C compiler, we could have compiled with the -S option, as below, to produce a file demo.s:

m68k-elf-gcc -Wall -nostdlib -nodefaultlibs -m68000 -S demo.c

Given the S record file, we can directly download it to the TS2 using the TUTOR monitor's LO command, and then execute it.

To be able to produce output, I wrote some simple code to call TUTOR's firmware routines, which are accessed by a TRAP #14 instruction.

For example, to pass control to the TUTOR monitor you call function 228, by passing this value in register D7 and calling TRAP #14. Here is the code to do it in C using some in-line assembler code:

// Go to the TUTOR monitor using trap 14 function. Does not return.
void tutor() {
    asm("move.b #228,%d7\n\t"
        "trap #14");
}

To do output to the console I wrote a short routine that takes a character and calls TUTOR's OUTCH call which writes a character to the console. The code to do it is as follows:

// Print a character using the TUTOR monitor trap function.
void outch(char c) {
    asm("movem.l %d0/%d1/%a0,-(%sp)\n\t"  // Save modified registers
        "move.b #248,%d7\n\t"             // OUTCH trap function code
        "trap #14\n\t"                    // Call TUTOR function
        "movem.l (%sp)+,%d0/%d1/%a0");    // Restore registers
}

The code could be improved and made more robust, for example not
relying on the fact that gcc puts the passed parameter in register D0. But this worked well for a quick demo. I then wrote a routine in C to print a string by calling outch() for each character in the string:

// Print a string.
void printString(const char *s) {
    while (*s != 0) {
        outch(*s);
        s++;
    }
}

I wrote another routine in C to print a number in decimal. Both this and the previous routine could be implemented more efficiently by calling routines in TUTOR that can already do this.

The example program prints numbers from 1 to 7 along with their squares, value to the fourth power, and factorial. I stopped at 7 because I needed to use 16-bit short integers to avoid the need for run-time math routines and 7 factorial was the largest value that would fit in 16-bits.

Here is the output when run from the monitor:

TUTOR  1.3 > GO 2000
PHYSICAL ADDRESS=00002000
Start
n  n^2  n^4  n!
1 1 1 1
2 4 8 2
3 9 27 6
4 16 64 24
5 25 125 120
6 36 216 720
7 49 343 5040
Done

At some point in the future I might implement more routines, and then try building some larger applications like an interactive text adventure game that I wrote some time ago.

Saturday, May 20, 2017

Building a 68000 Single Board Computer - Programming Examples


I earlier mentioned the book 68000 Assembly Language Programming, Second Edition, by Lance A. Leventhal, Doug Hawkins, Gerry Kane, and William D. Cramer. The book has many complete programming examples listed in it that help explain 68000 programming.

The book recommends entering and running the programs ona 68000-based system. I've been doing that, and it makes the code much clearer than simply reading the text. With the 68000 TUTOR software it is very easy to disassemble code in memory, display amd enter memory values, and run the program examples. I typically step through the code an instruction at a time using the trace function, looking at the values of the registers and selected memory locations.

Here is a typical disassembly of some example code:

TUTOR  1.3 > MD 4000 24 ;DI
004000    307C6001             MOVE.W  #24577,A0 
004004    7003                 MOVEQ.L #3,D0 
004006    4281                 CLR.L   D1 
004008    4282                 CLR.L   D2 
00400A    6008                 BRA.S   $004014 
00400C    D241                 ADD.W   D1,D1 
00400E    3601                 MOVE.W  D1,D3 
004010    E54B                 LSL.W   #2,D3 
004012    D243                 ADD.W   D3,D1 
004014    1418                 MOVE.B  (A0)+,D2 
004016    D242                 ADD.W   D2,D1 
004018    51C8FFF2             DBF.L   D0,$00400C 
00401C    33C100006004         MOVE.W  D1,$00006004 
004022    4E75                 RTS

While I could enter the programs as hex data from the text, or use TUTOR's built-in assembler, I have been entering the source code on a Linux computer and cross-assembling it using the VASM assembler. Then I can load the Motorola hex (run) file generated by the assembler into the TS2 computer over the serial port.

Here is the source code corresponding to the disassembly above:

DATA     EQU     $6000
PROGRAM  EQU     $4000
STRING   EQU     $6001           ADDRESS OF FOUR DIGIT BCD STRING
RESULT   EQU     $6004           ADDRESS OF RESULT
         ORG     PROGRAM
PGM_7_4A MOVEA.W #STRING,A0      POINTER TO FIRST BCD DIGIT
         MOVEQ   #4-1,D0         NUMBER OF DIGITS(-1) TO PROCESS
         CLR.L   D1              CLEAR FINAL RESULT - D1
         CLR.L   D2              CLEAR DIGIT REGISTER
         BRA.S   NOMULT          SKIP MULTIPLY FIRST TIME
LOOP     ADD.W   D1,D1           2X
         MOVE.W  D1,D3
         LSL.W   #2,D3           8X = 2X * 4
         ADD.W   D3,D1           10X = 8X + 2X
NOMULT   MOVE.B  (A0)+,D2        NEXT BCD DIGIT,(D2[15-8] UNCHANGED)
         ADD.W   D2,D1           ADD NEXT DIGIT
         DBRA    D0,LOOP         CONTINUE PROCESSING IF STILL DIGITS
         MOVE.W  D1,RESULT       STORE RESULT
         RTS
         END     PGM_7_4A

The VASM assembler is almost entirely compatible with the Motorola assembler and I have had to make only a very few changes to the code listed in the book. I did find a couple of errors, too.

So far I have entered almost four chapters worth of examples, just over thirty programs. I have placed the code on my github account. I'll continue doing so until I either get bored or finish the examples.

Monday, May 15, 2017

Building a 68000 Single Board Computer - Dr Dobb's Demos


I expanded a couple of the programs that I entered from Dr. Dobb's Toolbook of 68000 Programming to run on my TS2 computer under the TUTOR monitor. I added a main program that uses the output routines provided by TUTOR through its trap 14 interface to display output of the routine.

The first is the random number generator routine. The demo lists a series of 32-bit random numbers in decimal. Here is some of the initial output:

TUTOR  1.3 > GO 1058
PHYSICAL ADDRESS=00001058
16807
282475249
1622650073
984943658
1144108930
470211272
101027544
1457850878
1458777923
2007237709
823564440
1115438165
1784484492
74243042
114807987
1137522503
1441282327
16531729
823378840
143542612

The second demo is for the square root routine. It lists the integer square roots of the numbers from 0 to 100 000, displaying the number and its corresponding square root. Here is some of the initial output:

TUTOR  1.3 > GO 10B0
PHYSICAL ADDRESS=000010B0
0 0
1 1
2 1
3 1
4 2
5 2
6 2
7 2
8 2
9 3
10 3
11 3
12 3
13 3
14 3
15 3
16 4
17 4
18 4
19 4
20 4

And here is the final output as it reached 100 000:

99980 316
99981 316
99982 316
99983 316
99984 316
99985 316
99986 316
99987 316
99988 316
99989 316
99990 316
99991 316
99992 316
99993 316
99994 316
99995 316
99996 316
99997 316
99998 316
99999 316
100000 316

Thursday, May 11, 2017

Building a 68000 Single Board Computer - Dr. Dobb's Toolbook of 68000 Programming



As part of my 68000 retrocomputing work, I've been collecting some old books on 68000 programming. One book that I have been searching for some time is Dr. Dobb's Toolbook of 68000 Programming. I was recently able to acquire a copy.



It is a collection of articles on the 68000 that were originally published in Dr. Dobb's Journal. Most of them were added or updated for publication in the book. It is an interesting collection of articles, ranging from an introduction to the 68000 family to some Forth implementations and 68000 assemblers, and some small programs.

Gordon Brandly's Tiny Basic, which I have earlier run on the TS2 board, is included.

Some of the articles are quite relevant to my recent work on the TS2 board. There is one on the TUTOR monitor program and another and on bringing up a new 68K board by getting it to freerun.

Overall, it makes for an interesting read. I even know one of the authors -- someone who did some consulting work (not 68000 related) where I was once employed.

This particular copy came from the University of Hertfordshire in England and contains the original library markings and card.



While some of the articles have very large software listings (like a 68000 assembler written in Modula-2), four of the articles were relatively small self-contained programs: I entered the source code for them and put the code up on my github account.

I successfully assembled them with the VASM assembler and ran them on my TS2 board under the TUTOR monitor. They all seemed to work flawlessly (with the exception of one that is not a complete self-contained program).

It was quite straightforward to run them under TUTOR, I added a small main routine with a JSR followed by a TRAP #14 to return to TUTOR after execution. From TUTOR I could set register values to fill in the parameters and the look at the values returned.

Now I'm debating whether to type in 88 pages of Modula-2 source code for an assembler - I don't think I can find a suitable compiler.

Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Programming the MeinEnigma - Alarm Clock Example



In this installment we'll tie together much of what we looked at in this blog series with a larger application.

I decided to implement a simple digital clock program with alarm. These were the basic requirements and features:

  1. Time display, 12 hour mode: 100 through 1159 with rightmost decimal point indicating pm. 24 hour mode: 0000 through 2359. The second decimal point will toggle at a one second on/one second off rate whenever the time is displayed. The time is also displayed in binary using the discrete LEDs. The hours are shown on the LEDs in the first row, minutes on the second row, and seconds on the third row.
  2. Time set function: pressing four keys below display will perform as follows (left to right): go back one hour, advance one hour, go back one minute, advance one minute.
  3. Chime: When enabled, will beep on the hour using the buzzer.
  4. Alarm: When enabled, buzzer will sound at one second on/one second off rate until any key is pressed. Leftmost decimal point indicates alarm on.

Keyboard keys:

D - Display date briefly, e.g "JA 1" "2017" or "DE24" "2018". Shows month and day, then year, then goes back to time mode.

C - Toggle chime. Briefly Display "CH Y" or "CH N", then goes back to time mode.

M - Toggle between 12 and 24 hour mode. Briefly display "12HR" or "24HR", then go back to time mode.

A - Toggle alarm on/off. Briefly display "AL N" or AL Y", then go back to time mode. Leftmost decimal point goes on when alarm is enabled.

S - Set alarm. Pressing keys under display will set alarm time, similar to time set. Pressing S again will exit alarm set mode. Leave alarm set mode if no key pressed for more than 5 seconds.

T - Set date. Pressing keys under display will set month and day, similar to time set. Pressing T again will exit date set mode. Leave date mode if no key pressed for more than 5 seconds.

I won't go over the source code line by line. The software can be found here.

It consists of one main loop which performs various functions:
  1. Get the current time from the RTC.
  2. Display current time, alarm time, or date depending on mode in effect.
  3. Display time in binary on the discrete LEDs.
  4. Check if it is time to play the chime (hour rolled over).
  5. Check if it is time to play the alarm. Toggle alarm beep if it is active.
  6. If no keys pressed for 5 seconds, exit alarm or date set modes and revert to time mode.
  7. Check if key pressed.
  8. If alarm is active, pressing any key will turn it off.
  9. Update how long since a key was pressed.
  10. Handle time/alarm/date set keys 1-4.
  11. Handle date key.
  12. Handle toggle chime key.
  13. Handle 12/24 hour mode key.
  14. Toggle alarm on/off key.
  15. Handle alarm mode key.
  16. Handle set date keys.
  17. Delay 1 second, unless a key was pressed.
  18. Toggle seconds decimal point.
The program was written for clarity and not intended as a polished application. Several things could could be made more efficient and there are some obvious enhancements, some of which are listed under "to do" at the top of the file.

It doesn't use the the sound module or the rotors. These could obviously used for sounds and for setting the time or date.

Incidentally, there are Arduino-based clocks on the market. The "new" Heathkit, for example, offers one as a kit which looks like a traditional digital clock and is Arduino based.

Tuesday, May 9, 2017

Programming the MeinEnigma - Plugboard



The plugboard circuitry uses two MCP23017 16-bit i/o expander chips. This chip features two 16-bit bidirectional i/o ports controlled over an I2C interface.

The chip offers a number of nice features including the ability to individually set each pin as an input or output, optional pullup resistors, polarity inversion, and interrupts when a pin changes level or changes from a default value. It is programmed via 22 registers.

With 16 i/o pins, two MCP23017 chips are needed to support the 26 signals on the plugboard. The signals are connected as listed below:

Chip:   U301
Port:   GPA0 GPA1 GPA2 GPA3 GPA4 GPA5 GPA6 GPA7 GPB0 GPB1 GPB2 GPB3 GPB4 GPB5 GPB6 GPB7
Plug #:  1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12   13   14   15   16
Letter:  Q    W    E    R    T    Z    U    I    O    A    S    D    F    G    H    J

Chip:   U302
Port:   GPA0 GPA1 GPA2 GPA3 GPA4 GPA5 GPA6 GPA7 GPB0 GPB1 GPB2 GPB3 GPB4 GPB5 GPB6 GPB7
Plug #:  17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   NC   NC   NC   NC   NC   NC
Letter:  K    P    Y    X    C    V    B    N    M    L

The plugboard is really a general purpose i/o interface. You can read the level (high or low) of any of the plug signals, or drive them high or low.

When used as a physical plugboard for the Enigma machine, the way it works is that each plugboard port is configured as a output and driven low, one port at a time. The other ports are configured as inputs with a pullup resistor enabled. If a cable is connected to the tested port and one or more other ports, the corresponding ports will be pulled low. Reading the input ports will detect which ports are low.

Every port is tested in turn as an output and the other ports read to determine what it is connected to. Normally a cable connects one port to at most one other port, but this can handle the general case of connections between multiple ports.

Unlike the LED/keyboard chip. the MeinEnigma software doesn't make use of any software library for the MCP23017 chip, it reads and writes the ports directly. My example program makes use of the some of code from the MeinEnigma software that controls the chips.

The program first show the values of all of the ports of each of the two chips. These will normally all be high unless you jumper a port to ground while the example program is running (the unused holes in the plugboard below each ports are connected to ground, by the way).

Next it shows the values of each plug by name using some lookup tables.

The final step is more representative of the MeinEnigma. We determine what jumpers are present by driving one port at a time low and seeing what other ports go low. It checks for multiple connections.

Here is some sample output. At the beginning I had connected plug 1 to ground. Then I made some plugboard jumper connections.

Plugboard Demonstration

U301 GPIOA = 11111110 GPIOB = 11111111 U302 GPIOA = 11111111 GPIOB = 11111111
U301 GPIOA = 11111110 GPIOB = 11111111 U302 GPIOA = 11111111 GPIOB = 11111111
U301 GPIOA = 11111110 GPIOB = 11111111 U302 GPIOA = 11111111 GPIOB = 11111111
U301 GPIOA = 11111110 GPIOB = 11111111 U302 GPIOA = 11111111 GPIOB = 11111111
U301 GPIOA = 11111110 GPIOB = 11111111 U302 GPIOA = 11111111 GPIOB = 11111111
U301 GPIOA = 11111110 GPIOB = 11111111 U302 GPIOA = 11111111 GPIOB = 11111111
U301 GPIOA = 11111110 GPIOB = 11111111 U302 GPIOA = 11111111 GPIOB = 11111111
U301 GPIOA = 11111110 GPIOB = 11111111 U302 GPIOA = 11111111 GPIOB = 11111111
U301 GPIOA = 11111110 GPIOB = 11111111 U302 GPIOA = 11111111 GPIOB = 11111111
U301 GPIOA = 11111110 GPIOB = 11111111 U302 GPIOA = 11111111 GPIOB = 11111111

Plug 1 "Q" is low
Plug 2 "W" is high
Plug 3 "E" is high
Plug 4 "R" is high
Plug 5 "T" is high
Plug 6 "Z" is high
Plug 7 "U" is high
Plug 8 "I" is high
Plug 9 "O" is high
Plug 10 "A" is high
Plug 11 "S" is high
Plug 12 "D" is high
Plug 13 "F" is high
Plug 14 "G" is high
Plug 15 "H" is high
Plug 16 "J" is high
Plug 17 "K" is high
Plug 18 "P" is high
Plug 19 "Y" is high
Plug 20 "X" is high
Plug 21 "C" is high
Plug 22 "V" is high
Plug 23 "B" is high
Plug 24 "N" is high
Plug 25 "M" is high
Plug 26 "L" is high

Plug 1 "Q" is connected to L
Plug 2 "W" is connected to K
Plug 3 "E" is connected to Z
Plug 4 "R" is connected to I
Plug 5 "T" is connected to U
Plug 6 "Z" is connected to E
Plug 7 "U" is connected to T
Plug 8 "I" is connected to R
Plug 9 "O" is connected to P
Plug 10 "A" is connected to F
Plug 11 "S" is connected to D
Plug 12 "D" is connected to S
Plug 13 "F" is connected to A
Plug 14 "G" is connected to J
Plug 15 "H" is connected to
Plug 16 "J" is connected to G
Plug 17 "K" is connected to W
Plug 18 "P" is connected to O
Plug 19 "Y" is connected to M
Plug 20 "X" is connected to
Plug 21 "C" is connected to
Plug 22 "V" is connected to
Plug 23 "B" is connected to
Plug 24 "N" is connected to
Plug 25 "M" is connected to Y
Plug 26 "L" is connected to Q

Plugboard connections: QL WK EZ RI TU OP AF SD GJ YM

Based on this code you can imagine other uses for the plugboard like driving outputs or reading input devices.

The full listing is below. This completes our examples of programming the hardware on the MeinEnigma. In the next installment we will tie things together with a larger example application that does something more useful and uses most of the hardware we have covered.

/*
  MeinEnigma Example

  Demonstrates controlling the plugboard.
  Uses code from the MeinEnigma software.

  Jeff Tranter

*/

#include

/*
  The plugboard uses two MCP23017 16-bit i/o expander chips. The ports
  are assigned as follows:

  Chip:   U301
  Port:   GPA0 GPA1 GPA2 GPA3 GPA4 GPA5 GPA6 GPA7 GPB0 GPB1 GPB2 GPB3 GPB4 GPB5 GPB6 GPB7
  Plug #:  1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9    10   11   12   13   14   15   16
  Letter:  Q    W    E    R    T    Z    U    I    O    A    S    D    F    G    H    J

  Chip:   U302
  Port:   GPA0 GPA1 GPA2 GPA3 GPA4 GPA5 GPA6 GPA7 GPB0 GPB1 GPB2 GPB3 GPB4 GPB5 GPB6 GPB7
  Plug #:  17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   NC   NC   NC   NC   NC   NC
  Letter:  K    P    Y    X    C    V    B    N    M    L

*/

//  MCP23017 registers, all as seen from bank 0.
//
#define mcp_address 0x20 // I2C Address of MCP23017 (U301)
#define IODIRA      0x00 // I/O Direction Register Address of Port A
#define IODIRB      0x01 // I/O Direction Register Address of Port B
#define IPOLA       0x02 // Input polarity port register 
#define IPOLB       0x03 // "
#define GPINTENA    0x04 // Interrupt on change
#define GPINTENB    0x05 // "
#define DEFVALA     0x06 // Default value register
#define DEFVALB     0x07 // "
#define INTCONA     0x08 // Interrupt on change control register
#define INTCONB     0x09 // "
//#define IOCON     0x0A // Control register
#define IOCON       0x0B // "
#define GPPUA       0x0C // GPIO Pull-up resistor register
#define GPPUB       0x0D // "
#define INTFA       0x0E // Interrupt flag register
#define INTFB       0x0F // "
#define INTCAPA     0x10 // Interrupt captured value for port register
#define INTCAPB     0x11 // "
#define GPIOA       0x12 // General purpose i/o register
#define GPIOB       0x13 // "
#define OLATA       0x14 // Output latch register
#define OLATB       0x15 // "

// Lookup table of i/o port addresses for each plug number.
char address[26] = { mcp_address, mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address,  mcp_address, mcp_address + 1, mcp_address + 1, mcp_address + 1, mcp_address + 1, mcp_address + 1, mcp_address + 1, mcp_address + 1, mcp_address + 1, mcp_address + 1, mcp_address + 1 };

// Lookup table of register addresses for each plug number.
char reg[26] = { GPIOA, GPIOA,  GPIOA,  GPIOA,  GPIOA,  GPIOA,  GPIOA,  GPIOA, GPIOB, GPIOB, GPIOB, GPIOB, GPIOB, GPIOB, GPIOB, GPIOB, GPIOA, GPIOA, GPIOA, GPIOA, GPIOA, GPIOA, GPIOA, GPIOA, GPIOB, GPIOB };

// Lookup table of i/o port bits for each plug number.
char bit[26] = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 1 };

// Lookup table of letters for each plug #.
char plug[27] = "QWERTZUIOASDFGHJKPYXCVBNML";

// Write a single byte to i2c.
uint8_t i2c_write(uint8_t unitaddr, uint8_t val) {
  Wire.beginTransmission(unitaddr);
  Wire.write(val);
  return Wire.endTransmission();
}

// Write two bytes to i2c.
uint8_t i2c_write2(uint8_t unitaddr, uint8_t val1, uint8_t val2) {
  Wire.beginTransmission(unitaddr);
  Wire.write(val1);
  Wire.write(val2);
  return Wire.endTransmission();
}

// Read two bytes starting at a specific address.
// Read is done in two sessions - as required by MCP23017 (page 5 in datasheet).
uint16_t i2c_read2(uint8_t unitaddr, uint8_t addr) {
  uint16_t val = 0;
  i2c_write(unitaddr, addr);
  Wire.requestFrom(unitaddr, (uint8_t)1);
  val = Wire.read();
  Wire.requestFrom(unitaddr, (uint8_t)1);
  return Wire.read() << 8 | val;
}

// Read a byte from specific address. Send one byte (address to read) and read a byte.
uint8_t i2c_read(uint8_t unitaddr, uint8_t addr) {
  i2c_write(unitaddr, addr);
  Wire.requestFrom(unitaddr, (uint8_t)1);
  return Wire.read();    // Read one byte.
}

void setup() {

  Serial.begin(9600);
  Serial.println("Plugboard Demonstration");

  Wire.begin(); // Enable the Wire library.

  // Initialize U301
  // Set up the port multiplier.
  // Init value for IOCON, bank(0)+INTmirror(no)+SQEOP(addr
  // inc)+DISSLW(Slew rate disabled)+HAEN(hw addr always
  // enabled)+ODR(INT open)+INTPOL(act-low)+0(N/A)
  i2c_write2(mcp_address, IOCON, 0b00011110);
  i2c_write2(mcp_address, IODIRA, 0xff); // Set all ports to inputs.
  i2c_write2(mcp_address, IODIRB, 0xff); // Set all ports to inputs.
  i2c_write2(mcp_address, GPPUA, 0xff);  // Enable pullup.
  i2c_write2(mcp_address, GPPUB, 0xff);  // "

  // Initialize U302 - same as above
  i2c_write2(mcp_address + 1, IOCON, 0b00011110);
  i2c_write2(mcp_address + 1, IODIRA, 0xff);
  i2c_write2(mcp_address + 1, IODIRB, 0xff);
  i2c_write2(mcp_address + 1, GPPUA, 0xff);
  i2c_write2(mcp_address + 1, GPPUB, 0xff);
}

void loop() {
  int val;

  // Display levels of each hardware port.
  for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) {
    Serial.print("U301");
    Serial.print(" GPIOA = ");
    val = i2c_read(mcp_address, GPIOA);
    Serial.print(val, BIN);
    Serial.print(" GPIOB = ");
    val = i2c_read(mcp_address, GPIOB);
    Serial.print(val, BIN);

    Serial.print(" U302");
    Serial.print(" GPIOA = ");
    val = i2c_read(mcp_address + 1, GPIOA);
    Serial.print(val, BIN);
    Serial.print(" GPIOB = ");
    val = i2c_read(mcp_address + 1, GPIOB);
    Serial.println(val, BIN);
  }
  Serial.println();
  delay(3000);

  // Display level of each plug by name.
  for (int i = 0; i < 26; i++) {
    Serial.print("Plug ");
    Serial.print(i + 1);
    Serial.print(" \"");
    Serial.print(plug[i]);
    Serial.print("\" is ");
    val = (i2c_read(address[i], reg[i]) >> bit[i]) & 1;
    if (val) {
      Serial.println("high");
    } else {
      Serial.println("low");
    }
  }
  Serial.println();
  delay(3000);

  // Figure out what jumpers are connected by driving one port at a time
  // low and seeing what input port(s) go low.
  for (int i = 0; i < 26; i++) {

    // Set port i to be an output.
    i2c_write2(address[i], reg[i] - 0x12, ~(1 << bit[i])); // 0x12 is offset between GPIO and IODIR
    // And set it low.
    i2c_write2(address[i], reg[i], ~(1 << bit[i]));

    Serial.print("Plug ");
    Serial.print(i + 1);
    Serial.print(" \"");
    Serial.print(plug[i]);
    Serial.print("\" is connected to");

    for (int j = 0; j < 26; j++) {
      if (i == j) { // Don't check for jumper connected to itself.
        continue;
      }
      val = (i2c_read(address[j], reg[j]) >> bit[j]) & 1;
      if (val == 0) {
        Serial.print(" ");
        Serial.print(plug[j]);
      }
    }
    Serial.println();

    // Set port i back to being an input.
    i2c_write2(address[i], reg[i] - 0x12, ~(1 << bit[i]));
    // And set it high.
    i2c_write2(address[i], reg[i], 0xff);

  }
  Serial.println();
  delay(3000);
}

Monday, May 8, 2017

Programming the MeinEnigma - Keyboard



I earlier talked about the HT16K33 chip which controls the LEDs. It also scans the keyboard keys which are across part of the same matrix of rows and columns. The chip scans the keyboard for key closures for a brief time when it is not driving the LEDs.

The code to handle keyboard events is implemented using the same library that we used in the LED examples. It provides several functions related to keyboard including keysPressed(), readKey(), and readKeyRaw().

For the example program we will just use readKey(). It returns zero if no key was pressed, a positive number containing a key code if a key was pressed, and a negative key code if a key was released.

I created a lookup table called keys that returns the ASCII character corresponding to a key code. The four buttons under the alphanumeric displays return characters "1" through "4".

The example is very simple. Initialization in the loop() method consists of setting up the serial port and HT16K33 object.

In the main loop we call readKey(). If a key event occured we display to the serial port the ASCII character for the key and whether if was a key press or release.

Here is some sample output:

Key H pressed
Key H released
Key E pressed
Key E released
Key L pressed
Key L released
Key L pressed
Key L released
Key O pressed
Key O released
Key 1 pressed
Key 1 released

More advanced functions, like detecting multiple keys pressed at the same time, can be done with the other functions provided in the ht16k33 library, but the example shows the most basic case of reading the keyboard.

Here is the listing, which can also be found here,

/*
  MeinEnigma Example

  Demonstrates reading the keyboard.
  Uses code from the MeinEnigma software.

  Jeff Tranter

*/

// External library for HT16K33 chip.
#include "ht16k33.h"

// Lookup table of key codes to characters.
const char keys[] = { 'Q','W','E','R','T','Z','U','I','O','A','S','D','F','P','Y','X','C','V','B','N','M','L','G','H','J','K','1','2','3','4' };

// Object instance for HT18K33 chip.
HT16K33 HT;

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600); // Initialize serial port for debug output.
  HT.begin(0x00);     // Need to initialize the chip in order for keyboard to work.
}

void loop() {
  int k;

  k = HT.readKey();
  if (k != 0) {
    Serial.print("Key ");
    Serial.print(keys[abs(k)-1]);
    Serial.print(" ");
    if (k > 0) {
      Serial.println("pressed");
    } else
      Serial.println("released");
  }

  delay(100);
}

Sunday, May 7, 2017

Programming the MeinEnigma - Display LEDs



The four alphanumeric LEDs on the MeinEnigma are controlled by the HT16K33 chip in a similar fashion to the discrete LEDs. The only difference is visual: the alphanumeric LEDs are made up of 16 LED segments that can be individually controlled.

While you could program the segments using appropriate calls to setLed(), it gets tedious to program the right segments and typically you want to display a character. The MeinEnigma software uses a "font", an array defining the 16-bit patterns for each ASCII character. Then it implements a function displayLetter() which accepts an ASCII character and display number and shows the character on the associated LED.

For this example program I have lifted the font and the implementation of displayLetter(). The example program first turns all display segments on and then off using setLedNow() and clearLedNow() to demonstrate controlling the individual segments.

Next it displays the characters "ABCD" by calling displayLetter().

Finally, it displays the entire font character set on the LEDs (which, to save memory, is not the entire ASCII character set).

The listing is short enough to show below.

The full code can be found here.

/*
  MeinEnigma Example

  Demonstrates controlling the 4 alphanumeric LEDs on the main board.
  Uses code from the MeinEnigma software.

  Jeff Tranter

*/

// External library for HT16K33 chip.
#include "ht16k33.h"

// LED font table
#include "asciifont-pinout12.h"

HT16K33 HT;

// Display a character on one of the displays. Leftmost display is 0,
// rightmost is 3.
void displayLetter(char letter, uint8_t dispeno) {
  uint8_t led;
  int8_t i;
  uint16_t val;

  led = (dispeno) * 16;
  if (letter > '`')
    letter -= ('a' - 'A');
  val = pgm_read_word(fontTable + letter - ' ');

  // No lookup table needed, all LEDs are at offset 64
  HT.setDisplayRaw(dispeno * 2 + 64 / 8, val & 0xFF);
  HT.setDisplayRaw(dispeno *2 + 64 / 8 + 1, val>>8);
  HT.sendLed();
}

void setup() {
  // Need to initialize the chip in order for displays to
  // work. This also clears all display segments and LEDs.
  HT.begin(0x00);

  // Clear the RAM to make sure we read data but don't send it.
  for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(HT.displayRam); i++)
    HT.displayRam[i] = 0;
}

void loop() {
  int i;

  // All segments on
  for (i = 64; i <= 127; i++) {
    HT.setLedNow(i);
    delay(50);
  }

  // All segments off
  for (i = 64; i <= 127; i++) {
    HT.clearLedNow(i);
    delay(50);
  }

  // Display some characters
  displayLetter('A', 0);
  displayLetter('B', 1);
  displayLetter('C', 2);
  displayLetter('D', 3);
  delay(1000);

  // Display full character set.
  int j = 0;
  for (char c = ' '; c <= '`'; c++) {
    displayLetter(c, j % 4);
    j++;
    delay(200);
  }
}

Saturday, May 6, 2017

Programming the MeinEnigma - Discrete LEDs



How do you control 26 LEDs? A simplistic approach is a digital output pin per LED, but you would need 26, more than most Arduino boards other than the largest and most expensive models. Another solution is to arrange them in an array of rows and columns with an LED at the intersection of each row and column. By driving the appropriate rows and columns you can control the relevant LEDs. It could now be done with three rows of 9 columns, only requiring 3 + 9 = 12 i/o pins.

How about reading 26 keyboard switches? Again, you could use 26 separate inputs, but an array of switches arranged in rows and columns will also work like it did for LEDs, only requiring 12 pins for a 3 x 9 matrix.

LEDs are diodes which only pass current in one direction. If we connected the LEDs and switches to the same matrix, we can apply voltage in one direction to drive each LED. In the reverse direction, the LED will not conduct and we can detect if a switch (in series with a resistor) is connected across any row/column intersection. We will have to turn off the LED while we check for a keyswitch, but we can do this for only a brief time and the user will not notice, provided that the LEDs are on most of the time.

The HT16K33 LED Controller Driver with keyscan is the chip used to do this on the MeinEnigma. It can control up to a 16x8 matrix of LEDs and a 3x13 matrix of keys. It takes care of driving the LEDs that have been programmed on or off and scanning the keyboard for brief times so the LEDs still appear illuminated. It has some other nice features like the ability to adjust the LED brightness, flash the LEDs at a specific rate, and to handle multiple keys pressed at the same time. It does all this over a 2-wire I2C interface, so it only takes two Arduino pins and we can share them with the other I2C devices (like the real-time clock) because they can all have unique I2C addresses.

The chip controls not only the 26 discrete LEDs, and 26 + 4 keys, but also the four 16-segment alphanumeric displays.

Programming the HT16K33 is relatively complex, but fortunately an Arduino library has been written that takes care of the details of programming it. Using the library we can simply call methods like setLed() and clearLed().

The routines provided are listed and documented in the header file ht16k33.h. The implementation is in the file ht16k33.cpp.

I don't have room here to cover the programming of the chip in detail; maybe I will do so in a future blog post. If you want to understand it, take a look at the device data sheet.

For this example we'll look at how to program the 26 discrete LEDs on the lamp and key board. Future examples will look at the alphanumeric displays and keyboard keys which are controlled by the same chip.

Let's step through the program which is listed below and available from here. We first include the "ht16k33.h" library header file and create an instance of the HT16K33 object called HT.

In order to map the LED numbers connected to the chip with the order they are physically arranged on the board, we create a lookup table called ledTable.

In the setup() method we initialize the chip by calling the HT16K33 begin() method passing it the I2C address, zero.

In the main program we demonstrate a number of ways of controlling the LEDs.

The simplest API is to call setLed(), passing the LED number to turn an LED on (or off). We do this for all LEDs in a loop. The LEDs will not actually get turned on until we call sendLed() to send the command.

Next, now that the LEDS are all on, I illustrate changing the brightness by calling setBrightness(). It supports 16 levels of brightness, implemented by changing the duty cycle that the LEDs are on.

Next we turn all LEDs off, and then turn each LED on one at a time by calling setLedNow() which immediately sets the LEDs state without needing to call sendLed().

We then turn all LEDs off in a similar fashion.

Next, we create a little light show by walking one LED on at a time, then turning them all on, and walking one LED off at at time.

Finally, we turn random LEDs on or off for 10 seconds, after which the entire cycle repeats.

Here is an animated image file showing some of the patterns:



And here is the source code:

/*
  MeinEnigma Example

  Demonstrates controlling the 26 discrete LEDs on the lamp and key
  board.

  Jeff Tranter

*/

// External library for HT16K33 chip.
#include "ht16k33.h"

HT16K33 HT;

// Lookup table of LEDs.
byte ledTable[] = { 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 28, 29, 30, 31, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 };

void setup() {
  // Need to initialize the chip in order for displays to
  // work. This also clears all display segments and LEDs.
  HT.begin(0x00);
}

void loop() {
  int i;

  // All on.
  for (i = 0; i < sizeof(ledTable); i++) {
    HT.setLed(ledTable[i]);
  }
  HT.sendLed();
  delay(1000);

  // Change brightness.
  for (i = 16; i >= 0; i--) {
    HT.setBrightness(i);
    delay(100);
  }
  for (i = 0; i <= 16; i++) {
    HT.setBrightness(i);
    delay(100);
  }

  // All off.
  for (i = 0; i < sizeof(ledTable); i++) {
    HT.clearLed(ledTable[i]);
  }
  HT.sendLed();
  delay(1000);

  // Walk all LEDs on.
  for (i = 0; i < sizeof(ledTable); i++) {
    HT.setLedNow(ledTable[i]);
    delay(100);
  }
  
  // Walk all LEDs off.
  for (i = 0; i < sizeof(ledTable); i++) {
    HT.clearLedNow(ledTable[i]);
    delay(100);
  }
  
  // Walk one LED on.
  for (i = 0; i < sizeof(ledTable); i++) {
    HT.setLedNow(ledTable[i]);
    delay(100);
    HT.clearLedNow(ledTable[i]);
  }

  // All on.
  for (i = 0; i < sizeof(ledTable); i++) {
    HT.setLed(ledTable[i]);
  }
  HT.sendLed();
  
  // Walk one LED off
  for (i = 0; i < sizeof(ledTable); i++) {
    HT.clearLedNow(ledTable[i]);
    delay(100);
    HT.setLedNow(ledTable[i]);
  }

   // All off.
  for (i = 0; i < sizeof(ledTable); i++) {
    HT.clearLed(ledTable[i]);
  }
  HT.sendLed();
  
  // Random.
  for (int j=0; j < 500; j++ ) {
    i = random(sizeof(ledTable));
    if (random(2) == 1) {
      HT.setLedNow(ledTable[i]);
    } else{
      HT.clearLedNow(ledTable[i]);
    }
    delay(20);
  }
}